1819-1892 UK - Predicted the existence of Neptune which led to the discovery of Neptune in 1846. His prediction was only mathematical and he was proved right.
USA 1857 -- 1923 Discoverer of AMALTHEA, the moon of Jupiter. The discovery was purely by visual observation.
Poland - 1473-1523 Showed that the Sun at the center of the solar system. His theory was called "Heliocentric Cosmology".
Italy - 1546-1642. Built the first astronomical telescope. Discovered four satellites of Jupiter. Considered as the father of Observational Astronomy, modern physics and science. His book was titled "Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems" written in 1632.
UK 1656-1742 . Discovered the comet named after him,HAILEY's COMET. He actually did not discover the comet by himself. Based on the earlier appearance of a comet in 1456, 1531, 1607 and 1682, he predicted that it would appear again in 1758 and it did so. Thus the comet was named after him.
UK 1738-1822 Compiled catalogue of stars, discovered Moons of Uranus and Saturn. Built huge telescopes. A German by birth.
USA 1889-1953. Discoverer of Galaxies. His name is given to the space telescope now in orbit.
HOLLAND 1629 - 1695. Discoverer of Saturn's rings and devised the "wave theory of light". He was the author of the "probability theory" and he was the first to invent the Pendulum clock in 1656, and a pocket watch in 1675.
USA 1855-1916. He was the one to predict the presence of PLUTO which was later discovered by TOMBAUGH. Founder of the Lowell Observatory,Arizona, USA.
france 1730-1817. Famous for his catalogue of stars. His book was called the 103 Messier Objects. He was the first to record the Mercury transit.
UK 1643 -1727. Famous for his Gravitational theories and planetary motions. His calculations confirmed the 'helio centrism'. Built the first practical reflecting telescope.
GERMANY 1758-1840. Discoverer of asteroids and comets. One comet is named after him.
ITALY - Compiled star catalogues. Discoverer of the first asteroid CERES in 1801.
INDIA 476-550 Considered to be the father of Indian Astronomy. His books on astronomy are Gitikapada, Ganitapada, Kalakriyapada and Golapada. India's first satellite is named after him.
MANALI KALLAT VAINA BAPPU
INDIA 1927-1982. He was an internationally famous astronomer and President of the International Astronomical Union. The observatory at Kavalue in Tamilnadu is named after him.
INDIA 1114-1185. He was the head of the Astronomical Observatory at Ujjain in the ancient days.AMIT KUMAR DAS
INDIA 1932. Maharashtra. Internationally famous for his work on Cosmology. His the Indian astronomer to challenge the Big Bang Theory. Padma Vibhushan Awardee.
INDIA-Kerala. Famous for his work on Quantum Cosmology. Padma Shri Awardee.
INDIA 1893-1956-West Bengal. Famous Astrophysicist. He is known for his "Saha equation".
INDIA 1019-1066. He has authored books on calculating planetary longitudes, eclipses, planetary transits etc. His famous book on Astronomy is Siddhanta Shekara.
INDIA 505-587. Ancient astronomer - He was part of the Nine Jewels of the Gupta Empire.
JOHANN GOTTFRIED GALLE
GERMANY 1812-1890. Discoverer of Neptune. A ring of the Neptune is named after him.
INDIA 14th century Jain astronomer. "Yantra Raja" the first Indian Treatise on "Astrolabe" (historical astronomical instrument) to predict positions of Sun, Moon, Planets and Stars, was his major contribution.
INDIA. From Tata Institute of Fundamental research, known for his work on Radio Astronomy.