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Q1. Under what circumstances the Muslim rulers came to power in Mysore, interrupting the long Wodeyar dynasty rule? Who was the first?
HAIDER ALI -1761-1782 - Beginning his career as a soldier in Mysore state, which became independent in 1565 after the fall of Vijayanagar Empire and the Wodeyars began their rule again. He was made the Faujdar (Commander) at Dindigul in Tamilnadu. His training of the troops on the western lines and defending successfully the Srirangapattinam, the capital from the Marathas in 1759, earned him the reputation and the title of "Fateh Haider Bahadur" (Brave victorious Lion) conferred by Nanjarajar, Prime Minister and defacto ruler of Krishnaraja I.
Haider Ali overthrew Nanjarajar and took over the administration in 1761, at the same time recognized the Krishna Raja Wodeyar as the lawful ruler. During his rule, he captured Coorg, Malabar, Bellary, Gooty, Cuddappah, and his administrative reforms made Mysore State a powerful one. He extended his rule beyond Mysore and even came upto 5 Kms of Madras, when the British entered into a treaty with him in 1769. This treaty of mutual cooperation and assistance, was not honoured by the British when the Marathas defeated him in 1772.
The I and the II Anglo Mysore wars were fought during his rule. (see Indian Wars for more details). He then proceeded towards Tamilnadu and reached upto Kanchipuram and defeated Col.Bailee and proceeded further south only to face defeats at the hands of Sir Eyre Coote at Portonovo, Pollilur and Sholinghur. At the same time, his son Tipu Sultan laid a siege at Vandavasi and Vellore Forts. But in December 1782, he suddenly died of Cancer at Chittoor in Andhra.
TIPU SULTAN - 1782-1799 - He was also called the "tiger of mysore". He succeeded his father Haider Ali, and continued the II Anglo Mysore War until 1785. His military acumen and bravery was unmatchable and he subdued almost all the southern kingdoms, inflicted defeats on Marathas, Nizams and also the British on a couple of occasions. His notable military achievements are:
1. At the age of 15 itself, he commanded a Corps of Cavalry, accompanying his father in the invasion of Carnatic in 1767.
2. He played a major role and distinguished himself in the I Anglo Maratha War of 1775-1779 fought between the British East India Co., and the Maratha Empire (more details later)
3. He was actively involved in 2nd, 3rd and 4th Anglo Mysore Wars.
4. In the 2nd Anglo Mysore War, he helped his father defeat the British and negotiated the Treaty of Mangalore, with Lord McCartney.
5. In the 3rd Anglo Mysore War, where he invaded Travancore in 1789, with the assistance of the French, but was defeated as he did not get enough support from the French. The notable event in this battle was the use of rockets by Tipu Sultan. The Mysore Kingdom lost quiet a bit of its territory like Malabar, Salem, Anantapur and Bellary, benefiting the Marathas, the Nizams and the Madras Presidency of the British. This war lasted from 1790-1792.
6. In the 4th Anglo Mysore War, Tipu Sultan had to fight the combined forces of British East India Co., the Nizams of Hyderabad and the Maratha Confederacy and the State of Travancore. He was defeated and killed at Seringapattinam (now Srirangapattinam) in 1799.
Here again, (like in the case of Shivaji, Siraj Ud Daula of Bengal, Veerapandia Kattabomman of Panchalankurichi of Tamilnadu) , Mir Sadiq a commander of Tipu Sultan played treachery which helped in defeating and killing of Tipu Sultan by the British.
This resulted in the restoration of Wodeyar Dynasty in 1799 with Krishnaraja III ascending the throne, and the British gaining Coimbatore, North and South Kanara.
Q2. What were the non-military accomplishments of Tipu Sultan?
1. He built the first church in Mysore at the request of the French.
2. He laid the foundation for the Krishna Raja Sagar Dam, Mysore.
3. The famous Lal Bagh Garden at Bengaluru, commissioned by his father, was completed during his period.
4. He was the innovator of Rockets and was the first to use in the wars, against the British in the III Anglo Mysore War. Two of the rockets captured are now displayed at the Woolwich Museum of Artilleries in London. His invention of rocket became the forerunner for later days development of rockets or missiles.
5. His interest in French Revolution can be seen in his planting a Tree of Liberty at Seringapattinam and also becoming a member of the Jacobian Club, France.
6. He took keen interest in developing modern industries by importing foreign expertise. Sent Ambassadors to France, Turkey, Iran to develop foreign trade, introduced new system of coins, weights and even calendar.
Q3. When did Tipu Sultan sign the Treaty of Seringapattinam, with whom and what were its terms?
1. 19.3.1792 - This treaty was signed on this date with Cornwallis, with Nizam of Hyderabad and Maratha empire as other signatories. 2. Almost half of the territory of Tipu Sultan to be surrendered to the British, to be shared amongst the signatories. 3. Payment of a war indemnity of Rs.3 Crore by Tipu. 4. Sending of two of his sons as hostages to the British Camp in guarantee of Mysore's future conduct.