GENERAL QUESTIONS ON MEDIEVAL HISTORY
Q1. How were the literary luminaries in the court of Krishnadevaraya known?
Q2. Who was the greatest luminary from among the "Ashtadiggajas" of Krishnadevaraya court?
Allasani Peddanna - he was described as "Andhra Kavitha Pithamaha". His contributions were "Manucharitram" and "Harikatha Saramsamu".
Q3. Who was the other notable and famous personality (apart from Allasani Peddanna) from among the "Ashtadiggajas" of Krishnadevaraya's court?
Tenali Ramalinga - he wrote "Panduranga Mahatyam".
Q4. How the territory of Vijayanagar Empire was divided for administrative purpose, and who were the important administrators?
Mandalam or Rajyas - Provinces; Nadus - Districts; Sthalas - Sub Districts and Gramas - Villages.
Administrators: Mandaleswaras or Nayaka - Governor; Gauda - Village Headman; Nayakas or Palegars - Military Head. Nada Prabhus - Military incharge of Nadus/Sthals.
Q5. How the Caste system were known during Vijayanagar Empire?
Viprulu - Brahmins, Teachers and Priests; Rajulu or Rachavara - Ruling dynasty descendants from the Sudras; Matikaratalu/Vaishyas - Merchants/Traders; Nalavajativarus - Agriculturists and other professionals.
Q6. Who were the foreign travelers who visited the Vijayanagar Empire?
Ibn Batutah - Moroccan African; Nicolo De Conti - Italian. Abdur Razak - Persian; Domingo Paes - Portuguese; Duarte Edwardo Barbosa - Portuguese and Fernad Nuniz - Portuguese.
Q7. Nicole de conti - an Italian visitor visited Vijayanagara empire during whose regime?
Deva Raya I.
Q8. Which ruler of Vijayanagara empire had the title of "Gajabentakara"?
Deva Raya II.
Q9. Which Vijayanagara ruler sent an embassy to China?
Q10. Chronologically arrange the dynasties of Vijayanagar empire?
Sangama, Saluva, Tuluva, Aravidu.
Q11. What are the languages patronized by Krishnadevaraya?
Sanskrit, Telugu, Kannad and Tamil.
Q12. How was Krishnadevaraya also known?
Q13. What are the literary works of Krishnadevaraya himself?
Amuktamalyada - Telugu - on polity. Jambhavati Kalyanam - Sanskrit.
Q14. Which Bahmani ruler shifted the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar?
Ahmed Shah Wali.
Q15. How many years did Bahmani kingdom rule?
Q16. When was the Bahmani Kingdom founded?
Q17. Which was the second capital of Vijayanagara empire?
Q18. Policemen of Vijayanagara empire were paid out of taxes collected from?
Prostitutes and brothels.
Q19. What were the temples built by Krishnadevaraya?
Vithalaswamy and Hazara Ramaswamy temples at Hampi, Karnataka.
Q20. What was the largest administrative division during Vijayanagara period?
Q21. What were "Varahas" during Vijayanagara rule?
Q22. City of Nagalapura was built by?
Q23. Sangama brothers, who founded the Vijayanagara empire were originally in the service of?
Q24. How was the battle between Firoz Shah of Bahmani and Krishnadevaraya of 'Vijayanagara' quoted?
"War of the Goldsmith's daughter"
Q25. How was the military department of Vijayanagara empire known?
Kandachara - under the control of Nayaka.
Q26. How was the lease system of cultivation during Vijayanagara empire known?
Q27. How was the land revenue department during Vijayanagara empire known?
Q28. How was the Village accountant called during Vijayanagara period?
Sena Bova or Sanbhoga.
Q29. How was the Police Officer known during Vijayanagara rule?
Q30. What was the major export of Vijayanagar empire?
Q31. Which foreign traveler visited during the rule of Achyuta Deva Raya of the Vijayanagar empire?
Q32. Who founded the Aravidu dynasty of the Vijayanagar empire?
Tirumala Raya and the capital was Penukonda (Andhra Pradesh).
Q33. Who was the first Vijayanagara ruler to wrest the important port of Goa from the Bahmanis?
Q34. Sangama brothers, the founders of Vijayanagar empire, were by force converted to Islam by Md.Bin Tughlaq. They later converted to Hinduism at the instance of whom?
After establishing themselves at Kampili on behalf of the Delhi Sultans, they converted to Hinduism at the instance of VIDYARANYA a saint, and declared independence, founded the city of Vijayanagar/Vidyanagar to become an empire later.
Q35. Which Vijayanagar ruler was decisively defeated by Bahmani Firoz and forced to pay a huge war indemnity as well as to give his daughter in marriage?
Q36. Who amoung the four Sangama dynasty rulers of the Vijayanagara empire was generally acknowledged as the greatest?
Deva Raya II.
Q37. Which Adil Shahi ruler of Bijapur was killed by Krishna Deva Raya in the battle of Kovilkonda?
Yusuf Adil Shah.
Q38. Who was the Portuguese governor in India to conclude a friendship treaty with Krishnadeva Raya around 1511?
Q39. Arrange the Sangama rulers of Vijayanagar empire in the chronological Order?
Harihara I, Bukka I, Deva Raya I, Devaraya II, Mallikarjuna and Pranda Deva.
Q40. Arrange the Tuluva rulers of Vijayanagar empire in the historical order?
Vira Narasimha, Krishna Deva, Achyuta Deva, Venkata and Sadasiva.
Q41. Which dynasties ruled over Warangal?
Kakatiyas, Musnuri Nayaks, Recharla Velamas.
Q42. Who founded the Bahmani Kingdom?
Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah also called Hasan Gangu - 1347.
Q43. Who built the famous Gol Gumbaz?
Muhammad Adil Shah of the Adil Shahi dynasty.
Q44. Who was the guide and advisor of the Bahmani Sultanates?
Q45. Who built the Golconda Fort?
Quli Qutb Shah of the Qutb Shahis of Golconda.
Q46. Who built the famous landmark 'Charminar" at Hyderabad?
Quli Qutb shah. He was also the founder of the city of Hyderabad.
Q47. To which dynasty the famous Krishna Deva Raya belonged?
Q48. The witty, intelligent poet Tenali lived during the period of?
Q49. Ilyas Shahi dynasty ruled which part of India?
Q50. Ahom dynasty ruled which part of India?
Eastern India, specifically Assam and eastern region.
Q51. How was Assam called in the medieval days?
Q52. Which dynasty/ruler built the Lingaraja temple at Bhubaneswar and the Jagannath Temple at Puri?
Eastern Gangas, Anantavarman Choda Ganga.
Q53. Who built the Sun Temple at Konarak?
Narasimha I of the Eastern Gangas.
Q54. Suryavamsi Gajapatis ruled which part of India?
Q55. Sharqi dynasty was centred around which place?
Jaunpur in UP.
Q56. Gehlot dynasty centred their rule around which region of India?
Mewar in Rajasthan.
Q57. Kachchavahas had their rule centred around?
Amber (Jaipur) Rajasthan.
Q58. Rulers of Jaisalmer, Rajasthan were called as?
Q59. Khandesh region lies in the river valley of?
Q60. What is the original full name of Akbar?
Abdul Fatt Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar.
Q61. The Mughals also preferred to be called as ?
Chaghatayids - after Chenghiz Khan's second son Chagatay.
Q62. Babur founded the Mughal empire after defeating?
Ibrahim Lodhi of the Lodhi dynasty in the I Battle of Panipat in 1526.
Q63. What is the name of the garden in which Babur was buried?
Bagh e Babur, Kabul.
Q64. Which dynasty interevened/interrupted continuity of the Mughal rule?
Sur Dynasty founded by Sher Shah Suri in 1540 and lasted upto 1555.
Q65. Who introduced the currency RUPIAH which is now called Rupee?
Sher Shah Suri.
Q66. During whose rule the Grand Trunk Road connecting east and west of India (Bengal to Peshawar) was laid?
Sher Shah Suri.
Q67. Sher Shah Suri, considered a very good administrator, died of a freak accident. What was it?
Gun powder explostion in 1545.
Q68. Who built a college at Bidar making it an important intellectual centre in the Deccan?
Mahmud Gawan. Advisor of the Bahmani Sultans.
Q69. Whose quote are the following: " I am neither in Kaba nor in Kailas" and "God is breath of all breath"?
Q70. How were the couplets composed by Kabir, which he used to teach his followers were known?
Q71. Who was killed by Krishna Deva Raya in the battle of Kovilkonda?
Yusuf Adil Shah - founder of the Adil Shahi Dynasty - Bijapur.
Q72. Which Muslim ruler of Kashmir was described as the Akbar of Kashmir?
Q73. Which Muslim ruler of Kashmir was called "But-Shikan or Idol Breaker"?
Sikandar Shah because of his atrocities on the Hindus.
Q74. After the death of which Delhi Sultan did Malik Faruqi, the Governor of Khandesh, declared his independence?
Firoz Shah Tughlaq.
Q75. Which Russian traveler visited the Bahmani Kingdom?
NIKITIN - during the rule of Muhammad Shah III - (1463-1482).
Q76. Where was Kabir's Tomb built?
Maghar in Uttar Pradesh. He was a saint poet between 1440 to 1548.
Q77. Who wrote Gitavali, Kavitavali and Vinaya Patrika?
Tulsidas - 1532-1623 - author of "Ramacharitamanas" lived during the Mughal period.
Q78. Name the Sufi Saint whose philosophy greatly influenced Aurangazeb?
Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi.
Q79. What was Saluva Narasimha, before founding the Saluva Dynasty?
Chief of Chandragiri.
Q80. Mahmud Gawan was the Vakil as well as the Wazir of which Bahmani Sultan?
Muhammad Shah II.
Q81. Who were the "tarafdars" under Bahmani rule?
Q82. To which dynasty did Zainul Abidin belong to who ruled Kashmir during 1420-1470?
Shah Mir dynasty.
Q83. Who built the famous "Kirti Stambha" at Chitor in Rajasthan.?
It is also called the Vijay Stambha (Victory Tower). It is 37 meters in height and has 9 stories. It was built by Rana Kumbha of Mewar in 1458.
Q84. Who founded the city of Ahmedabad?
Ahamad Shah - in February 1411 - he was the Sultan of Gujarat from the Muzaffarid dynasty.
Q85. Who was the founder of the Gajapati dynasty in Orissa (now Odisha)?
Q86. The Second Battle of Panipat took place in which year and between whom?
1556 between Akbar and Hemu. Hemu was defeated.
Q87. Who was the founder of Sultanate of Madurai?
Jalaluddin Ahsan - founded this kingdom in 1335 and it lasted upto 1378. Jalaluddin Ahsan was the Governor of Malabar and when Md.Bin Tuglaq's regime was facing severe financial crunch, Jalaluddin was one among the few governors to rebel and declare independence and their own kingdom.
Q88. Bairam Khan was the Regent of the Mughal emperor Akbar. How die he die?
He was compulsority made to go on a pilgrimage to Mecca by Akbar's step mother. Enroute, he was killed by an Afghan at Patan in Gujarat in 1561.
Q89. What did Akbar do after gaining victory over Gujarat in 1572?
In memory of his victory, he built the famous monument Buland Darwaza at Fatehpur Sikri, a city also founded by him.
Q90. Battle of Haldighatti in 1576 was fought between?
Akbar and Rana Pratap of Mewar. ( Akbar's forces were led by Man Singh).
Q91. Whom did Akbar marry to improve his relations with the Rajputs?
HIRA KUNWARI - daughter of Raja Bharamal of Amber. (In fact Akbar had as many as 36 wives).
Q92. What was the name of the Christian missionary member in Akbar's court?
Father Monserrate - remained in Akbar's court between 1580-1583. He was a Portuguese.
Q93. What was the religion founded by Akbar?
Din-I- Ilahi - meaning Divine Faith - but the movement died after Akbar.
Q94. What was the name of the biography and political account of Akbar?
Akbar Nama - Biography and Ain-i-Akbari - political account, both written by Abul Fazl, Chief Advisor of Akbar.
Q95. Who killed Abul Fazl?
Bir Singh - a Bundela Tribal Chief near Gwalior around 1602. His assassination was arranged by Raja Bhagwan Das
Q96. When did Akbar die?
1605 - due to illness and he was buried at Sikandra (now in Pakistan).
Q97. Why was Jahangir named as Salim?
In honour of the Sufi saint Shikh Salim Chisti who seemed to have blessed Akbar for a child.
Q98. What does Jahangir mean?
Conqueror of the World.
Q99. What is the full name of Jahangir?
Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir.
Q100. Who was the other (other than Jahangir) son of Akbar?
Q101. In which language did Akbar write his memoir Tuzuk-i-Akbari?
Q102. Who was that Gujarat Sultan ( a contemporary of Akbar) who died by falling into the sea while negotiating with the Portuguese?
Bahadur Shah. He ruled Gujarat between 1526-1535 and 1536 and 1537.
Q103. Hemu, fought the II Battle of Panipat in 1556 with Akbar. Who was he?
He was a Hindu who rose to the level of Chief of Army General with Muhammad Adil Shah Suri.
Q104. Whose outrageous behaviour is said to be mainly responsible for the revolt of Bairam Khan against Akbar?
Q105. What was the first and the last territorial conquest of Akbar?
Malwa - 1562 and Asirgarh (near Burhanpur) in 1557 - both in M.P.
Q106. Which Rajputs were the first to submit to Akbar?
Q107. Who led the Mughal forces of Akbar in the battle of Haldighatti against Rana Pratap of Mewar?
Q108. Which revenue system during the Mughal period is also known as the 'Bandobasti system' ?
Q109. What credit is given to Akbar in relation to widows and the practice of Sati?
Akbar prohibited Sati, unless the widow herself, of her own will, desired it.
Q110. How many times Jahangir was married?
Q111. Nur Jahan was one of the wives of Jahangir. Who was she?
She was the widow of Sher Afghan who fought against the Governor of Bengal and died. His full name was Ali Quli Istajlu, a Persian and he was a Jagirdar of Burdwan of Bengal. Her original name was Mihr-un-Nisa.
Q112. What was the name of the mother of Shah Jahan, born to Jehangir?
Jagat Gosain ( a Rajput princess)
Q113. How was Shah Jahan initially named?
Q114. Which son of Jahangir revolted against him in the matter of succession?
Khusrau in 1606.
Q115. Which Sikh Guru was executed by Jahangir and for what reason?
Guru Arjan Dev (5th Guru) perhaps due to his supporting of Khusrau and for refusing to convert to Islam. Regarding his death many theories are brought out by historians.
Q116. Which Mughal ruler was the first to permit British to open a factory and trading post at Surat?
Jahangir in 1612. (The British team which met Jahangir for obtaining the trade licence was led by Captain Hawkins in 1609).
Q117. By a battle between British and Portuguese, the licence for opening a factory at Surat was granted to the British by Jahangir. What was the battle?
Battle of Swally ( a village near Surat, Gujarat) in 1612. The British troops were led by Captain Best.
Q118. Where did Jahangir die and where was he buried?
Jahangir died in 1627 at Bhimbar in Kashmir. He was buried at the Dilkusha garden at Shahdara near Lahore.
Q119. What was the name of the autobiography of Jahangir?
Q120. Which British Ambassador visited Jahangir's court?
Sir Thomas Roe - Ambassador of James I the King of Uk - visited the court of Jahangir in 1615 and stayed there till 1618, during which period he obtained permission for erecting factories in different parts of the empire. He left for England in February 1619.
Q121. Which agricultural produce was introduced in India during Jahangir's period?
Q122. Which Englishman was titled "Khan" by Jahangir?
Hawkins - who was the leader of the team that met Jahangir in 1609 for obtaining trade licences.
Q123. Humayun married whom and what was their child's name?
Hamid Banu Begum and the child born was Akbar the great ruler to come. He was born at Amarkhot in 1542.
Q124. Who was Humayun's famous army general who helped him to capture the throne?
Q125. Who wrote Humayun's life history?
Humayun Nama - written by his sister Gulbadan Begum.
Q126. Where is Humayun's Tomb?
At Nizamuddin in Delhi - which is a UNESCO declared world heritage site (from 1993) and an important Mughal architecture.
Q127. How the death of Humayun is often remarked?
"Tumbled in life and tumbled out of it"
Q128. Who was the last emperor of the Mughal empire?
Bahadur Shah Zafar II (1837 to 1857).
Q129. Where is the Mausoleum of Bahadur Shah Zafar II?
Shwedagaon Pagoda, Yangon (Rangoon) Burma(now Myanmar). After the sepoy mutiny of 1857, he was actually deported to Burma by the British and died there in 1862.
Q130. Jagir of the Mughals were equal to which of the Delhi Sultanates?
Q131. Who among the Mughal ministers was the pay master general as well?
Q132. Who were the "harakaras" of the Mughal period?
Spies and special couriers.
Q133. How many Mughal provinces were there during Akbar and Aurangazeb respectively?
Akbar - 15 and Aurangazeb - 21.
Q134. What was "tanab" during the Mughal period?
A measuring instrument made of bamboo sticks joined by iron rings.
Q135. What was "Jajmani" system of Mughal period?
A reciprocal system that existed in rural India between the peasantry and other occupational groups.
Q136. Which Mughal tomb is considered as a prototype of Taj Mahal and the first tomb to be placed in the centre of a large park like enclosure?
Humayun's Tomb at Delhi.
Q137. Which Mughal architectural building is equal in length and breadth?
Q138. Where was the famous "Peacock Throne" kept during Mughal period?
At "Diwan-I Am" of the Red fort, Delhi.
Q139. Which mosque of the Mughals is also called the "Pearl Mosque"?
Q140. Who wrote the history of Aurangazeb's reign and what is its name?
"Mutakhab-ul-Lubab" by Khafi Khan.
Q141. What is the name for the Persian version of Mahabharata?
RAZM NAMAH written during Akbar's period.
Q142. Arrange the great Mughal rulers in the chronological order?
Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jehan and Aurangazeb.
Q143. Who were the French visitors during the Mughal period?
Bernier, Thevenot, Tavernier.
Q144. Who were the people who invited Babur to invade India?
Rana Sanga of Mewar, Daulat Khan Lodhi and Alam Khan Lodhi.
Q145. What are Akbar's own innovative introduction of tax systems?
Zabti and Dahsala.
Q146. What were the names of the four sons of Shah Jahan who fought for the throne between 1656-1658?
Dara Shikoh, Shuja, Murad and Aurangazeb.
Q147. In the fight for throne between the sons of Shah Jahan, who fought for Dara Shikoh during infight?
Raja Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur.
Q148. What was the name of the Italian who was in the army of Dara Shikoh during infight?
Q149. What was the name of the French traveler who served Aurangazeb's army during the infight?
Q150. What were the names of the historians contemporary to Akbar?
Abul Fazl, Badauni, Mulla Daud and Niamuddin Ahmad.
Q151. What are the salient features of Mughal architecture?
1. Combination of Persian grandeur and originality with Indian grace and decoration.
2. Uniform structural principles and architectural character all over the empire.
3. Construction of tombs in the centre of large parks on high platforms.
4. Construction of a double dome, the outer and the inner one.
5. Cupolas standing on slender pillars at the corners.
6. Magnificient palace halls.
7. Lofty vaulted gateways.
Q152. Fatehpur Sikri is famous for housing the best of Mughal architecture. What are the buildings/monuments found here?
1. Tomb of Salim Chisti, the Sufi Saint. 2. Buland Darwaza 3. Palaces of Mariam and Sultana. 4. Panch Mahal.
Q153. Who were the two Persian Master painters who came to India with Humayun and were instrumental in the paining of Mughal buildings?
Sayyid Ali Tabrezi and Abdus Samad.
Q154. What were the literary works of Dara Shikoh, son of Shah Jahan?
Safinat-ul-auliya; Sakinal-ul-auliya; Hasanal-ul-arifin and Majma-ul-bahrain.
Q155. What was the ancestral principality of Babur?
Fergana - Uzbekistan.
Q156. What ws the name of the Turkish engineer who helped Bahadur Shah of Gujarat to storm Chittor Fort?
Q157. After which battle did Humayun go into exile?
Bilgram -Bengal. (Sher Khan Vs Humayun in May 1540)
Q158. Who translated Tuzuk-i-Baburi" in to Persian?
Abdur Rahim. It was Babur's autobiography in Turkish.
Q159. Which Persian ruler helped Humayun with 12000 troops, to reestablish Mughal rule in India?
Q160. Who conspired for the fall of Bairam Khan, the Regent of Akbar?
Relations of Akbar known as "Atkah Khail".
Q161. Who crushed the Afghan power in Orissa?
Q162. Who was that Jesuit missionary who had a discussion with Akbar?
Anthony Monserrate ( deputed by Portuguese).
Q163. Who wrote Tabaqat-i-Akbari?
Q164. The Persian ruler who besieged Qandhahar during Jahangir's reign was?
Q165. After which battle Humayun crossed the Ganges with the help of a water carrier?
Battle of Chausa.
Q166. Which Sikh Guru helped the rebel prince Khusrau with money and prayers?
Q167. Among the Mughal rulers who was considered as a great poet?
Q168. Among the Mughal emperors who are the two who were half Rajputs (born to Rajput mothers)?
Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
Q169. Who was the first Englishman to visit Jahangir's court?
Q170. What was the name of the first ship that came to India?
Q171. Akbar was a reputed player of which musical instrument?
Nakkarah.(Naqara - a large sized drum - can be carried over by animals only like - camel - used during wars in the medieval days by the mongols and persians.
Q172. During which Mughal ruler's period a new technique of painting called "Siyahi" was introduced?
Q173. How much of the actual produce was fixed as the demand of the state under the "Zabti" system during Mughal rule?
Q174. In honour of whom, Akbar laid the foundation of a new city at Fatehpur Sikri?
Salim Chisti, the Sufi Saint.
Q175. Jahangir had a faithful general, who later revolted against him. Who was that and for what reason?
Mahabat Khan in 1626 because of Nur Jahan's intrigues.
Q176. With which Mughal ruler the "Chain of Justice" system is associated?
Q177. Aurangazeb is known to have destroyed many Hindu temples. The famous one that escaped his wrath was?
Jagannath Temple, Puri, Orissa (now Odisha)
Q178. With which Mughal ruler are the promulgation of "twelve edicts" associated?
Q179. During Mughal rule, how was the police chief of a city called?
Q180. Which French traveler visited India six times during which Mughal ruler's period and what was the book about India written by him?
TAVERNIER visited the Mughal court six times during Shah Jahan's period and the book written by him was "Six voyages".
Q181. Who were the famous singers during Akbar's reign?
Surdas, Baiju Bawra and Ramdas.
Q182. What was the book written during Mughal period on painting?
Q183. Which foreign traveler served as a personal physician to which Mughal ruler?
Francois Bernier to Aurangazeb.
Q184. Which Mughal ruler appointed Marathas into his council of nobles?
Q185. Which Mughal ruler was famous for composing Hindi songs?
Q186. What was "Muraqqas" of Mughal period?
Albums of miniature paintings.
Q187. What was "Jagir" during Mughal period?
A unit of land.
Q188. Who were "Mansabdars" during Mughal period?
They were officials who received "Jagirs" and the revenues from it in lieu of salaries.
Q189. During the Mughal period who were the first to come to India as traders?