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Q1. What happened to Alexander on his retreat?
While on his return he reached Babylon (now Baghdad) in June 323 BC where he fell seriously ill and died at the age of 33.
Q2. Which former ruler resisted surrender to Alexander and what happened thereafter?

PORUS - resisted Alexander, thereby had to face a battle with Alexander on the banks of river Hydapses. Fierce battle took place at Karsi and Porus eventually lost. Alexander made some more progress and eventually decided to take on Magadha empire. But his forces, tired and fatigue, wanted to return. Thus, Alexander decided to retreat on 326 BC.

Q3. Alexander dispatched which two of his lieutenants in advance to invade India?
HEPHAESTIAN and PERDICCAS - they crossed Khyber Pass and built a bridge across Indus in 327 BC, the year in which Alexander at the border of India crossing the Hindkush Ranges of Afghanistan.
Q4. Which former ruler extended support to Alexander to enter India?
AMBHI - the ruler of Taxila.
Q5. In the meantime, during the period of Magadha Kingdom some out siders tried to invade and captured Indian territories on the west. Who were they?

1. CYRUS : of Persia came upto Kabul and captured some territories.

2. CAMBYSES: followed Cyrus, but did not make further headway. He was the son of Cyrus.

3. DARIUS I: Grandson of Cyrus. Conquered the Indus Valley in 518 BC. He also conquered portions of Sind and Punjab province. But preferred to be kept under Persian Xerxes, the emperor of Persia.

4. XERXES: 465-456BC - He fully used the Indian people to raise a big contingent and deployed them in Greece to fight his opponents.

5. DARIUS III: He raised huge contingent of Indian soldiers to fight against Alexander, who was heading towards India. The Persians control over Indian territories slackened on the arrival of Alexander.

Q6. Thus, who were the first foreigner to enter India?
Persians under Cyrus.
Q7. Who was the 2nd foreigner to attempt invasion of India?
Greeks led by Alexander the Great. He was the first emperor to invade India 326 BC.
Q8. Who was father of Alexander?
Phillip, the emperor of Macedonia.
Q9. When did Alexander ascend the throne of Macedonia?
In 334 BC after the death of his father Phillip.
Q10. What were the other minor republics that were in existence in other places during the period of Magadha Kingdom - 650 to 325 BC?

1. Sakyas of Kapilavatsu.

2. Lichchavis of Vaishali

3. Mallas of Pava

4. Mallas of Kushinagar

5. Kottiyas of Ramagrama

6. Bhaggas of Sumsumasa

7. Moriyas of Pippali Vahana

8. Kalamas of Kesaputta

9. Videhas of Mithila

10. Nayas (Jhatrikas) of Kundalagrama near Vaishali.

Q11. What are the dynasties that ruled Magadha Kingdom, before falling to the Mauryans around 321 BC?
PRADYOTA DYNASTY: 799 to 684 BC - ruled the Magadha kingdom comprising of Bihar lying south of Ganges, later to include more of Bihar and Bengal.
SHISHUNAGA DYNASTY: 684 BC to 424 BC - succeeded Pradyota dynasty to rule the Magadha kingdom - shifted capital to PATALI PUTRA (now PATNA) - the famous rulers were Bimbisara (545-491 BC), Ajatasatru (491-461 BC), Shishunaga (430 BC) and Mahanandin.
NANDA DYNASTY: 424-321 BC - founded by Mahapadma Nandin of the Shishunaga Dynasty, ruled until 321 BC, when Mauryans took over.
Q12. Magadha Kingdom was spread across? What was its capital?
Bihar and Bengal. Rajgriha (now Rajgir) was its capital.
Q13. Who were the founders of Magadha Kingdom?
Jarasandha and Brihadrata were the early founders of Magadha kingdom. However, the credit of founding the kingdom is really attributed to Bhimbisara and Ajata Satru. During their period the kingdom prospered.
Q14. Where was Kosala Kingdom, what was its capital and what happened to the kingdom?
Its region corresponded to modern Oudh, with its capital Ayodhya. Prasenjit was a famous king and established marital relationships with Magadha, by marrying his sister to Bimbisara the Magadha King, and presented Kasi to him. A dispute with Ajatasatru, brother of Bimbisara, led to a warring situation with Magadh. Conciliation prevented or stopped the war. Prasenjit got his daughter married to Ajata Satru. After change of leadership, Kosala finally surrendered to Magadha kingdom. Thus was born the great and first major kingdom in the north India.
Q15. Where was AVANTI kingdom, what was its capital and what happened to the kingdom?
Avanti kingdom was centred around Malwa, Nimar and some parts of Madhya Pradesh. Its capital was Ujjaini/Ujjain of today. Chanda Pradyota Mahasena was the only powerful ruler. Buddhism flourished during his rule. Later rulers were weak, thus taken over by Magadha rulers-4 BC.
Q16. Where was Vatsa Kingdom, its capital and what happened to it?
Also called the Vamsa Kingdom, situated on the banks of Jamuna river. Capital was Kausambi near modern Allahabad. Later rulers like Bedhi Kumara and Palaka were weak rulers and thus got annexed to the Avanti Kingdom.
Q17. What are the four major kingdoms that formed and survived and this formation took place during whose lifetime?

1. Vatsa    2. Avanti   3. Kosala   and   4. Magadh. This happened during the lifetime of Buddha - born in 563 BC.

Q18. Prior to formation of larger and bigger kingdoms, how many small and recognizable kingdoms were there and what are they?

1. Anga    2. Magadha   3. Kasi   4. Kosala   5. Vajji   6. Malla   7. Chedi   8. Vatsa   9. Kuru   10. Panchala   11. Matsya   12. Surasena   13. Assake  14. Avanti   15. Gandhara   16. Khamboja.    Over the years smaller and weaker kingdoms gave in for the formation of bigger kingdoms. This period is called the Pre Mauryan Period.

Q19. What are the other dynasties to follow before empires / kingdoms of smaller or larger areas have started coming up?

1.  Bharatha Dynasty -- 1700 BC to 1400 BC;

2.  Kuru Dynasty -- 1400 BC to 450 BC;

3.  Pandava Dynasty -- 1200 BC to 1100 BC;

4.  Janjua Shahi -- 964 BC to 1026 BC (Jayapala was the founder)

5.  Brihadrata Dynasty -- 1700 BC to 799 BC

Q20. Which dynasty was the beginning of dynastic rule in India?

SUN DYNASTY - 1700 BC to 1500 BC - VIVASANT the Sun God is believed to have commenced this dynasty. Lord RAM was the last ruler of this dynasty. The descendants of this dynasty are called the "Surya Vansh"or "Surya Vamsam".

Q21. What is dynasty?
A succession of rulers who are members of the same family or the period during which a family reigns.