BRITISH IN INDIA
Q1. Who was the first British merchant adventurer to come to India?
John Mildenhall in 1539.
Q2. When and by whom the English East India Company was formed?
Formed by a group of merchants called "Merchant Adventurers" in 1599.
Q3. When was the East India Company given the stamp of approval/charter by the monarchy for trading in Eastern Region?
On 31st December 1600 by Queen Elizabeth I. Before the expiry of this term, King James I of Britain, made a monopoly business Charter from 1609.
Q4. When and who came to India to seek the permission of the ruler to start a factory in India?
In 1608, the East India Company decided to open a factory at Surat. Accordingly, Captain Hawkins arrived in Jahangir's court in 1609 to seek permission. However, the approval of the emperor was delayed due to the intervention and pressure of the Portuguese. Therefore, the British waged a battle with the Portuguese at Swally called "Battle of Swally" (near Surat) and defeated them in 1612. Then the emperor issued the "farman" (king's order), permitting the British to start a factory at Surat which they did in 1613.
Q5. Who was the next Britisher to visit Jahangir's Court after Hawkins?
Sir Thomas Roe, in 1615 as the ambassador of King James I of England. He obtained the permission of Jahangir for starting more factories in the empire. He left for England in 1619.
Q6. Based on the successful visit of Sir Thomas Roe to Jahangir's court, where were the factories started by the British?
WEST - Agra, Ahmedabad, Baroda and Broach by 1619.
SOUTH EAST - Masulipatnam - 1611; Armagaon near Pulicat - 1626.
EAST - Hariharpur, Balasore - Orissa - 1633; Hooghly - 1651; Patna, Dacca, Kasimbazaar - Bengal - Orissa -1652.
Q7. When did the England Imperial gave permission for the East India Company to acquire lands, raise their own army and mint currency?.
In 1670 by King James II. This authorization was the beginning of the British establishing their strength in India
Q8. What was the initial land acquisitions made by the British to establish themselves?
SOUTH - 1639 - The Britisher Francis Day acquired Chennapattinam (later Madras and then Chennai) from Chennappa Nayakar, Raja of Chandragiri, built a fortified factory named Fort St. George, completed between 1678-1680 and made it their capital (from Masulipatnam) for all its eastern regions like Bengal, Bihar and Oriss
WEST - 1668 - Besides a portion of it coming to it from the matrimonial alliance with the Portuguese (marriage of Charles II of England with Princess Catherine of Portugal) the Britishers also acquired the region around on lease from both the Portuguese and Charles II. They made Bombay as the Capital (from Surat) for all its western regions. Gerald Aungier was the first Governor of Bombay from 1669-1677.
EAST - 1690 - a factories were opened at Sutanuti, in Bengal in 1698. Later three villages viz: Sutanuti, Kalikata and Govindpur became Calcutta, now KolkattThe factory at Sutamuti was fortified, using the rebellion attitude of Shoba Singh, a Zamindar of Burdwan as an excuse. This for later became the "Fort Williams". This again became the headquarters of all settlements in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, by 1700. Charles Eyre became the first President of the Fort Williams.
Q9. Who was the Mughal Emperor who granted exemption of Customs duties to the British East India Company?
Between 1686 to 1689, the relationship between the East India Company and the Mughals was very hostile. The hostility began under Sir John Child. Finally, the company surrendered and were pardoned by Aurangezeb in 1690 and in 1691 granted customs duty exemption in return for annual payment by the company, in Bengal. The concession was further extended by Farukh Siyar in 1717, covering Gujarat and Deccan. These grant of concessions gave the East India Company a firm footing for trade and development, and also raising their force strength.
Q10. What was the beginning of East India Company's military acquisitions of territories in India?
It all started by the mid 18th century in 1745, when the Britishers involved themselves in wars in the Carnatic region, what is called "Carnatic Wars".
Q11. How many "Carnatic Wars" were fought and when?
Three - 1. 1745-1748 Between Arcot Nawabs and French.
2. 1749-1754 Between French and the British.
3. 1758-1763 Between French and the British.
Q12. What were events leading to and during the First Carnatic War between 1745-1748?
1. 1745 - English navy captured few French Ships.
2. 1746 - In retaliation, the French under Dupleix captured Madras along with some prisoners, which included Robert Clive.
3. English appealed to the Carnatic Nawab to help recapture Madras. The French refused to oblige the Nawab's appeal.
4. Thus came the I Carnatic war between the Carnatic Nawab and the French in which Nawab was defeated due to lack of expertise.
5. 1748- However, the end of war of succession in Europe, brought an end to this war, and Madras was restored back to the British in exchange of some territory in North America captured by the British, under the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.
Q13. What were the events leading to and during the II Carnatic War -1749-1754?
1. The French extended support to Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib in Hyderabad in the succession of wars for the respective thrones.
2. On the other hand, the British supported the two opponents in the two states viz - Nasir Jung in Hyderabad and Anwar-ud-din and his son Muhammad Ali in the Carnatic respectively.
3. The French killed the opponents of their candidates and placed them in the throne in their respective zones by 1749.
4. In 1751, Arcot was captured by Robert Clive and simultaneously Dupleix the French Governor suffered two successive defeats at the hands of the British.
5. In 1752, Chanda Sahib of Carnatic was killed by an English ally, general of Tanjore and Muhammad Ali son of Anwaruddin was restored back to the throne of Carnatic.
6. Dupleix made a few futile attempts to reverse the trend with the English (1753-1754). Dupleix was recalled back to France in 1754.
7. The war came to an end with the Treaty of Puducherry of 1754.
Q14. What were the events leading to and during the III Carnatic War - 1758-1762?
1. 1756 - The Seven Years War in Europe, an outcome of the Austrian succession war and also the hostility that existed between France and England in establishment of colonies in various parts of the world.
2. 1757 - Chandernagore in Bengal was captured by Robert Clive.
3. 1758 - Count De Lally of France arrived to reconcile the situation.
4. 1759 - French suffered three naval battles defeat.
5 1760 22.1.1760 - Battle of Wandiwash (Vandavasi now) English General Eyre Coote defeated the French de Lally. Wandiwash is a Fort in Carnatic.
6 1761 - This resulted in the British becoming the protectors of the Nizam of Hyderabad from 1761. Pondicherry was ceded to the British, and all other settlements in India lost to the British.
7.1763 - Peace with British and French concluded by Treaty of Paris, 1763. By defeat of French in this war, their dream of a French empire in India vanished. Instead, Pondicherry, Karaikkal, Mahe and Yanam were given back to the French with the assurance that they would not interefere with British administration and development.
Q15. When and where was the decisive battle between the Nawab of Bengal and the British took place, thus the eastern region coming under the British fully?
1757 - PLASSEY - a village near Murshidabad. West Bengal, known as BATTLE OF PLASSEY - The victory in this battle made the British more powerful, to capture entire India in the years to come. This battle was also the beginning of the British in amassing and draining of the wealth in Indi However, the stigma of treachery played a major part in this battle on two counts. One, Mir Jafar betrayed Siraj Ud Daula on the other side, Robert Clive cunningly betrayed one of the co conspirators by preparing two sets of memorandum of understandings by which he cleverly helped the British in not paying a huge money to one of the co- onspirator. The Battle was fought between Siraj Ud Daula, the Nawab of Bengal and the British forces with Robert Clive in the lead.
Q16. Battle of Plassey was fought between whom and when?
23rd June 1757 - between the British forces led by Robert Clive and the forces of Siraj Ud Daula, the Nawab of Bengal in which the Nawab was defeated.
Q17. What was the most notable and contributing factor for the defeat of the Nawab of Bengal forces?
The Nawab forces lost the battle due to the treacherous act of three generals mainly Mir Jafar and the others being Yar Lutuf Khan and Rai Durlabh. They secretly colluded with the company's agents.
Q18. What were the causes of the Battle of Plassey?
1. Misuse and misinterpretation of the Nawab's farman (Orders) and other concessions extended to them.
2. Fortification of Calcutta by the British against the Nawab's orders.
3. Inexperience, hastiness and lack of expertise of the young Nawab.
Q19. When and where was the Battle of Buxar fought?
22.10.1764 - Buxar - a place in Bihar near PatnThe Battle was fought between the British led by Major Hector Munro and the combined forces of Mir Qasim Nawab of Bengal, Shuja Ud Daula, Nawab of Awadh and Shah Alam II, the Mughal Emperor.
Q20. What were the causes leading to the Battle of Buxar?
1. Conflict between Mir Qasim and the Nawab of Bengal and the English supremacy.
2. Abolition of all duties for internal trade and the misuse of farmans issued by the Nawabs to the British.
3. Misbehaviour and ill treatment of the locals by the British officials.
Q21. What was the major cause for defeat of Mir Qasim in the battle of Buxar?
1. Mir Qasim himself was not a shrewd general;
2. Mir Qasim was heavily dependent on two European generals - Marker and Sumroo, who when it came to fighting against Europeans let him down.
Q22. What were the outcome of the Battle of Buxar?
1. The British became the defacto rulers of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa i.e. dual government, that is, Nawabs remained in power without power , while British exercised the actual power.
2. Nawab of Awadh, who fought along with the Nawab of Bengal in this battle, became a dependent of the English company.
3. The Mughal Emperor was pensioned off.
4. The English proved their might as superior in military skills and arms. Their power as rulers raised.
Q23. Who was the Governor when Bengal was captured back from Siraj Ud Daula and during Battle of Plassey?
Roger Drake 1756-1758
Q24. Who were the other important Governors of Bengal, when Bengal, Bihar and Orissa were brought under British rule and what events took place during their periods?
ROGER DRAKE - 1756-1758 - 1. Capture of Calcutta by Siraj Ud Daula; 2. Black Hole Incident; 3. Recapture of Calcutta by Clive and 4. Battle of Plassey. After the battle of Plassey, Robert clive became the Governor.
ROBERT CLIVE - 1758-1760 - 1. After defeating Siraj Ud Daula, Robert Clive allowed Mir Jafar to become the Nawab by which he was able to gain full control of Bengal. 2. He introduced the "dual system of government" during his tenure. 3. He left for England in 1760.
VANSITTART - 1760-1765 - 1. Mir Jafar was replaced by Mir Qasim as the Nawab of Bengal; 2. Mir Jafar was reinstated in 1763; 3. Battle of Buxar in 1764; 5. Death of Mir Jafar and Najm Ud Daula succeeded as Nawab of Bengal. 6. Treaty concluded on 20.2.1765 with Najm Ud Daula including therein that one Deputy Subahdar of the British choice to be appointed permanently and major part of the Nawab army to be disbanded.
ROBERT CLIVE - 1765-1767 - 1. Clive returned as Governor of Bengal in May 1765; 2. Tripartite Treaty of Allahabad, 1765 was concluded between Robert Clive, Najm Ud Daula (Mir Jafar's son and successor and titular ruler of Bengal) and Shuja Ud Daula of Awadh; 3. The Tripartite Treaty carried or contained a) Oudh/Awadh was restored to Shuja Ud Daula; b) Allahabad and Kara districts of Awadh was given to Shah Alam of Mughals; c) Mutual assistance to each other; d) Shuja Ud Daula to pay Rs.50 Lakh as war indemnity to the British; e) Raja Balwant Singh allowed to hold Benares, Ghazipur and other districts; f) Shuja Ud Daula to maintain one garrison of British at his cost and to grant trading privileges to the British throughout his dominion. g)After the conclusion of the treaty, the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam had conferred upon the diwani rights of the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the British and in return he was to receive an annual grant of 26 lakhs but revert his royal jagir to the company.
WARREN HASTINGS - 1772-1773 - a) He abolished the dual government and pensioned off the Nawab. b)Took over direct administration of Bengal; c) Concluded a Treaty of Benares in September 1773 with the Nawab of Awadh with the following conditions - i) The two districts of Kara and Allahabad to be sold to the Nawab Wazir from Shah Alam; ii) Shah Alam who took sides with the Marathas forfeits all the British gratitude and help, and therefore these territories to be sold to the Nawab. In lieu, he should pay Rs.50 lakh to the company; iii) The Nawab would defray the expenses of the troops maintained by the company for his help and assistance at Rs.2.1 Lakh per month for a brigade whenever required.
Q25. To consolidate their position in the South, the British fought how many wars called the Anglo Mysore Wars? What are they?
There were four Anglo Mysore Wars. The wars were:
1. I Anglo Mysore War 1766-1769 ;Haider Ali Vs British
2. II Ango Mysore War - 1780-1784;Haider Ali Vs. British
3. III Anglo Mysore War - 1790-1792; Tipu Sultan Vs. British
4. IV Anglo Mysore War - 1799. Tipu Sultan Vs. British.
Q26. What was the major cause for the I Anglo Mysore War?
1. Haider Ali desired to drive the British away from India;
2. British's realization of the threat of Haider Ali in their efforts to establish fully in south.
3. British, Nizam and Marthas formed an alliance;
4. Haider Ali succeeded in breaking the alliance and waged a war.
Q27. What are the outcome of the I Anglo Mysore War of 1766-1769?.
1. Haider Ali had considerable gains in the Tamilnadu and was able to reach within five kilometers of Madras, besides other territories in the South.
2. In April 1769, the war concluded on a treaty of defence between Haider Ali and the British.
i) Mutual restitution of conquests to take place, excepting Karur and its districts to be retained by the Mysore ruler;
ii) Mutual assistance in case of external threat;
iii) Captured employees of Madras Government to be released;
iv) Raja of Tanjore to be treated as a friend and ally of Haider Ali; and
v) Trade privileges of the British to be restored
Q28. What were the causes for the Second Anglo Mysore War (1780-1784)?
1. Mutual distrust and failure of the English to fulfill their commitment of assistance when Marathas attacked Haider Ali in 1771;
2. Hostilities between British and French on the outbreak of American War of independence;
3. British capture of Mahe, a French settlement, within Haider's territory;
4. Haider Ali's alliance with Nizam of Hyderabad and Marathas against the British in 1779.
Q29. What are the events that took place during the Second Anglo Mysore War 1780-1784?
1780 - Haider Ali captured Arcot by defeating Col.Baillie of the British; 1781 - Haider Ali was defeated at Porto Novo by Sir Eyre Coote; 1782 - Haider Ali defeats Col. Braithwaite near Tanjore; 1783 - Tipu Sultan captured Brig. Mathews and his men at Bednore and taken as captives to Seringapattinam and killed. 1784 - End of War with Treaty of Mangalore.
Q30. Between whom the Treaty of Mangalore was signed and what were its contents?
It was signed between Tipu Sultan and Lord McCartney, Governor of Madras on 11th March 1784 and the contents were: i) To stop warring against each other and helping others in war; ii) Trading privileges as granted by Haider Ali in 1770 to be restored to the British; iii) Mutual restoration of possessions; iv) Tipu Sultan not to claim Carnatic in future; v) Tipu Sultan agreed to release all prisoners of war; vi) Tipu Sultan was to restore the factory privileges possessed by the company at Calicut until 1779.
Q31. What were the reasons for the Third Anglo Mysore War?
The war was fought between Tipu Sultan and Cornwallis and the reasons were i) Successful administrative reforms of Tipu Sultan in his state created apprehensions in the minds of the British, the Nizam and the Marathas; ii) Tipu Sultan's expansion of his territories, especially the Travancore region who were British allies; iii) The British managed to ally with Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas against Tipu Sultan by 1790.
Q32. What was the outcome of the III Anglo Mysore War?.
1790 - Although Tipu Sultan defeated Major General Meadows, the diversionary tactics and huge supply and force support from British, helped Meadows to gain control over the situation. In the meantime Malabar coast from Calicut to Managalore was wrested by the British in 1790.
1791 - Cornwallis assumes as Commander;
1792 - Cornwallis surrounded Seringapattinam (Srirangapattinam) after some initial setbacks.
1792 - 18th March 1792 a Treaty was signed at Seringapattinam bringing the end of the war
Q33. What was the outcome of the Treaty of Seringapattinam 1792?
i) The treaty was signed between the English, Nizam and Peshwa on one side and Tipu Sultan on the other side; ii) The earlier Treaties are treated as confirmed; iii) Tipu was made cede half of his territories, to be shared among the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Marathas and the Britishers. Thus Tipu Sultan was left with a very small region with South and West of river Cauvery; iv) Tipu was to make immediate payment of 1.6 Crores, from the 3.6 crores agreed upon the treaty, immediately and the remainder to be paid in three installments; v) Tipu Sultan to release all prisoners of War; vi) Pending fulfillment of these terms, two of his sons were taken as hostages by the British.
Q34. When and for what reasons the fourth Anglo Mysore war was fought?
March 1799 - The war was fought between Tipu Sultan of Mysore Kingdom and Lord Wellesley, for the following reasons:
i) Tipu Sultan's desire to avenge the earlier defeat;
ii) Tipu Sultan's efforts to get the external help from France, Arabia, Kabul and Turkey;
iii) The arrival of a French force at Mangalore in April 1798; and
iv) Lord Wellesley's determination to put an end to the threat from Tipu.
Q35. What were the events during and at the end of the IV Anglo Mysore War to the Mysore Kingdom?
i) Tipu Sultan was defeated at Sedaseer by Stuart on 5th March 1799;
ii) Tipu Sultan again met defeat at the hands of General Harris at Malvelly on 27th March 1799;
iii) Tipu Sultan retreated to Seringapattinam to defend, but died of defending it on May 4, 1799.
iv) Arthur Wellesley (brother of Lord Wellesley, Governor General) who also
v) Most of Mysore was annexed by the British, leaving a small portion to the defeated Napoleon in the battle of Waterloo, also took part in this battle; Wodeyar ruler Krishnaraja Wodeyar III who was just 5 years old then;
vi) In 1831, because of the inefficient and misrule of the then Wodeyar dynasty ruler, William Bentick of the British, took over the administration;
vii)In 1881, Lord Rippon restored the administration back to the Wodeyars.
Thus, with the Wars of Plassey, Buxar, Carnatic and Anglo Mysore Wars, the stretch from Bengal to the down south and the Malabar coast came under the British control.
Q36. Who was the traitor of Tipu Sultan and what was the role played by him in the defeat and killing of Tipu Sultan?
MIR SADIQ - general of Tipu Sultan. During the war, when Tipu Sultan was proceeding towards protecting the breach in the fort through which the British troops were closing in on him, the general deployed his forces elsewhere to receive their wages, rather than helping Tipu Sultan, which helped the British to defeat and kill him.