ANGLO MARATHA WARS
Q1. How many Anglo Maratha wars were fought and when?
Three. 1. I Anglo Maratha War 1775-1782; 2. II Anglo Maratha War 1803-1805; 3. III Anglo Maratha War 1817-1818
Q2. What were the main causes of I Anglo Maratha War - 1775-1782?
1. The major cause of this war was the infighting between the Marathas for power between Sawai Madhav Rao supported by Nana Phadnis and Raghunatha Rao, uncle of Madhav Rao. 2. The British desired to take advantage of this position by supporting Raghunatha Rao.
Q3. What are the events that took place during this Anglo Maratha War I?
1776 - Marathas defeated the British at Talegaon; 1779-1780 - British marched from Calcutta to Ahmedabad in Gujarat, East to West, capturing and defeating every opposition enroute in Central India, a rare military feat; 1781-1782 - quite period without any war;
Q4. What were the consequences of the I Anglo Maratha War 1775-1782?
1. Peace agreement with Marathas called "Treaty of Salbai" signed. 2. With the help of Marathas, exerted pressure on Haider Ali of Mysore to give back the territories captured by him to the British; 3. This was the beginning of the British policy of divide and rule, by forcing the Marthas to exert pressure on Mysore on the one hand, and on the other peace with Marathas, to prevent any alliance formation again and possible attack.
Q5. When was the II Anglo Maratha War fought and for what reason?
1803-1805. The reasons for this war was:
1. Lord Wellesley's aggressive policy of interefering with the internal affairs of the Marathas;
2. Death of a number of wisemen of the Marathas;
3. Strife among the Maratha Chiefs;
4. One of the Maratha Confederation Chief, Peshwa Baji Rao II, signing a subsidiary treat at Bassein in 1802 with the British.
Q6. What was the outcome of the II Anglo Maratha War?
1. The British headed by Arthur Wellesley defeated the combined forces of Scindias and Bhonsles in the Battles of Assaye and Aragaon in 1803; 2. Unable to defeat the Holkars, the British signed the Treaty of Rajpurghat; 3. British made inroads into the Marathas Empire and strengthened their position in the west; 4. Thus the British East India Co., became the most powerful from down South to the East, Central and Western India.
Q7. When was the III Anglo Maratha war fought and for what reason?
1817-1818 - 1. The Marathas' loss of freedom and 2. Rigid control exercised ` by the British residents on the Maratha Chiefs.
Q8. What was the outcome of the III Anglo Maratha War in 1817-1818?
1. The Peshwa was dethroned and pensioned off; 2. Entire Maratha Empire came under the British and the Bombay Presidency was established; 3. A kingdom of Satara was created to appease the Marathas; 4. Maratha chiefs coexisted with the British control, and ofcourse conceding a lot of territories to the British.
Q9. Between 1775-1818, the British were engaged in wars and treaties with Marathas? What were the various treaties with Marathas?
1. TREATY OF SURAT - 1775 - Signed by Peshwa aspirant Raghunatha Rao and the causes/outcome for the treaty were;
a) British desired to capture the islands Salcette and Bassein near Bombay at any cost, which were strategically important;
b) On the death of Peshwa Madhava Rao in 1772, both Raghoba and Narayan Rao became rival claimants for Peshwaship;
c) Raghoba Rao had Narayan Rao murdered;
d) Maratha Sardars led by Nana Phadnis turned against Raghob. Upon this he fled to Surat and sought company's help;
e) Taking advantage, the Company, signed a treaty with Raghoba on 6.3.1775 with the following conditions mainly:- All earlier treaties with the Peshwas were reconfirmed. 2500 British troops to be placed with Raghoba for his support to Peshwaship on a monthly payment of half a lakh rupees per month.Raghoba to depost jewelleries worth six lakhs as security with the British. Raghoba agreed to cede Salcette, Bassein and four other islands to British. This treaty was the basis for the British to actively involve themselves in the I Anglo Maratha War.
2. TREATY OF PURANDHAR - 1776 - There was a different of opinion about the negotiations about the Treaty, between the Calcutta and Bombay councils.However, the negotiations went off after a protracted delay with the following terms:
i) Salsette and surrounding regions to be restored by the Company;
ii) Peshwa of Poona to pay Rs.12 Lakhs as war indemnity;
iii) The Company to restore those parts of Gujarat ceded to them by Raghunatha Rao or Gaekwad;
iv) All treaties with Raghoba and the Gaekwads to be annulled, while those of 1739 and 1756 treaties with the Peshwa's court were reaffirmed.
3. TREATY OF WADAGAON - 1779 - and the terms were;
i) Signed between Mahadji Scindia of Marathas and Col. John Carnac of British representing Bombay army;
ii) The Bombay government withdrew support to Raghunatha Rao or Raghoba and would surrender all acquisitions made by it since 1773;
iii) The troops advancing from Bengal were to be stopped and a sum of Rs.41000/- and two hostages (William Farmer and Charles Stewart) surrendered as security for fulfilling this condition;
iv) Broach was to be handed over to Scindias;
v) The Treaty was later disapproved of and repudiated by both the Bombay and Bengal governments on the ground that Col.Carnac had exceeded instructions and lacked the authority to conclude such a treaty.
4. TREATY OF SALBAI - 1782 - Salbai is located 32 Kms to the South of Gwalior. The First Anglo Maratha War concluded on the basis of this. Signed by Mahadji Scindia on behalf of the Peshwa Madhav Rao and the British on 17th May 1782 with the following stipulations:
i) All territories including that of Gaekwad territories granted and captured by the British, to be given back to the Peshwas;
ii) Salcette and three adjoining islands to it, along with the city of Broach to be retained by the British;
iii) The Company to withdraw its support and protection afforded to Raghunatha Rao;
iv) The Peshwa to make Haider Ali to relinquish his claims to British
v) To refrain from attacking on each other and the Peshwa would not allow territories; any European settlement in his territories without English consent;
vi) Company's privileges to be restored;
vii) This treaty has played an important role in the future of the Company in that, on one hand it has ensured peace with Marathas for 20 years and on the other hand ensured that the Indian rulers do not unite. The Company established its dominance and importance in control.
Q10. What was the background under which the Treaty of Bassein was signed by Baji Rao the Peshwa and the English in 1802?
The Marathas by the beginning of the 19th century, started to crumble due to internal wrangles, jealousy and drifting apart. Daulat Rao Scindia and Yeshwant Rao Holkar fought for the superemacy at the Peshwa's court. Yeshwant Rao Holkar had Madhav Rao Holkar murdered and took his own son Kande Rao, a prisoner. Then sometime later, the Peshwa baji Rao II got Vithoji Holkar murdered. Upon this, Yashwant Rao Holkar marched to Poona to take revenge. Despite Scindia's army support, the Holkar's defeated the Peshwa and fled to Bassein to seek the Company's help, to reestablish himself.
Q11. When was the Treaty of Bassein signed and What were its contents? What are the other subsequent treaties between Marathas and the British Company?
TREATY OF BASSEIN - 13.12.1802 - between Peshwa Baji Rao II and the Company. By this treaty the Peshwa virtually signed away his and his people's independence. The conditions of the treaty was:
i) Peshwa to maintain a 6000 company infantry at an annual expenditure of about Rs.25 lakhs;
ii) Peshwa not to engage any foreign national who is hostile to the British;
iii)Peshwa to settle his differences with the Nizam and the Gaekwad only with the British intercession;
iv)The Peshwa to relinquish his claim over Surat;
v) Peshwa not to negotiate with any other state without the Company's prior permission;
vi)Following this treaty on 16.12.1803, a subsidiary treaty was signed by which the Peshwa was to add a native Cavalry to the British army.
vii)This treaty made the British colony to dictate and interfere with the Maratha affairs. Thus, the British became the power of Western India.
TREATY OF DEOGAON - 17.12.1803 - signed between Raghuji Bhonsle and the Company. It was signed during the II Anglo Maratha War (1803-1805) with the following stipulations:
i) Cuttack and Balasore of Orissa to be ceded to the Company which enabled them to have the eastern coast from Madras to Calcutta under their control;
ii) Raghuji Bhonsle to expel all foreigners from his service;
iii) Accept Mount Stuart Elphinstone as the British envoy at his court;
iv) Acceptance of Treaties concluded with the feudatories of the confederation;
v) British company would arbitrate in all his disputes;
vi) Raghuji Bhonsle and his successors to dissociate with other confederation chiefs.
TREATY OF SURJI ARJANGAON - 30.12.1803 - signed between Scindias and the Company. The terms were:
i) Scindias to cede all territories between Yamuna and Ganga to the Company;
ii) To give up the control over Delhi, Agra and the Rajput State;
iii) To accept John Malcolm as an accredited Minister at his court;
iv) Honor the treaty of Bassein with Peshwa;
v) To accept the British as the Soveign authority;
vi) Not to employ any foreign nationals;
vii) In turn the British to support the Scindia, simultaneously restoring some regions to Scindias;
viii)Scindia to maintain a British force of six battalions.
TREATY OF RAJPURGHAT - 24-12-1805 - It was signed by Yashwant Rao Holkar with the British and the terms are:
i) Yashwant Rao to renounce all claims to the north of Bundi Hills;
ii) Not to employ any Europeans;
iii)British, not to disturb Holkar's possessions in Mewar and Malwa or interfere with rulers of South of Chambal;
iv) British to restore Holkar's possessions South of River Tapti;
v) On 2.2.1806, the British also restored possessions of Holkar north of Bundi Hills. This treaty brought an end to the II Anglo Maratha war, with the Holkar's completely coming under the British and accepting their supremacy.
TREATY OF POONA - 1817 - The basic reason for the signing of this treaty by the British with Scindias of Gwalior was to launch a campaign against the Pindharis (see question and answer later) of West beyond Gujarat. It was signed on 5.11.1817 between Lord Hastings and Scindi The main contents were:
1. Scindia to support the British to fight against the Pindharis and not to entertain them any more;
2. Scindia to provide 5000 Cavalry to the British for the campaign against the Pindharis,and also act according to the British directions;
3. The British will have the authority to enter into the Handi and Asirgarh forts and to enter into engagements with the rulers of Udaipur, Jodhpur, Kotah and Bundhi and other Chambal regions; This treaty made Scindias a mere spectator in the impending Anglo Maratha War III.
TREATY OF MANDSAUR - 1818 - 6.1.1818 - Between Malhar Rao Holkar II and British Company during the III Anglo Maratha War. The terms were:
i) Confirm a British commitment to the Pindhari Chief Nawab Amir Khan renounce all claims to territories guaranteed to him;
ii) Cede permanently to Raja Zalim Singh of Kotah, the four parganas rented by him;
iii) Cede to the British claims of tribute and revenues on the Rajahs of Udaipur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kotah, Bundi and Karauli;
iv) Holkar to withdraw all claims of territories within and north of Bundi Hills;
v) Cede to the British all territories and claims South of Satpura Hills;
vi) British to station a field force to maintain his internal security;
vii) Not to employ any European without the Company's consent;
viii) To receive an accredited British Minister. In return the British undertook never to permit the Peshwa or his heirs and successors to claim or exercise any sovereign rights over Malhar Rao or his heirs and successors.
Q12. What was the Pindhari War of 1817-1818?
It was fought between 1817-1818 between the Pindaris, a tribal chiefs of Afghanistan, who were once allies of the Pathans, started spreading and troubling the British in the regions directly or indirectly under the control of the British. The Pindaris were headed by Karim Khan, Wasil Muhammad and Chittu. This war against the Pindaris, later became the III Anglo Maratha War with the Peshwas, Bhonsle and Holkar joining the War for the Pindaris, but were defeated separately by the British. The British forces, led by Warren Hastings as Governor General, took one year to make to the Pindaris to surrender. Thus, the further Western/North western regions also became opposition free for the British.