ANGLO SIKH WARS AND ANNEXATION OF SIND
Q1. How many Anglo Sikh Wars were fought and when?
Two - I Anglo Sikh War - 1845-1846 and II Anglo Sikh War - 1848-1849.
Q2. What were the events that led to the I Anglo Sikh War?
1. Anarchy in Punjab after the death of Ranjit Singhji.
2. Murder of Three Sikh rulers - Karak Singh, Nau Nihal Singh and
3. Dalip Singh, only 5 years old minor, succeeding Ranjit Singhji and the absence of any control over the army - Khalsa;
4. British slowly but steadily occupying, one by one, the surrounding regions of Punjab viz: Ferozpur - 1835; Sikharpur - 1836; Ludhiana and Sind in 1838 and appointing their own residents; Increasing their military strength in Punjab from 2500 in 1836 to 14000 in 1843;
5. Annexation of Sind in 1843 by the British confirmed the Sikh's doubts about the intentions of the British.
Q3. What was the outcome of the I Anglo Sikh War?
1. Lal Singh was defeated by the British under Sir Hugh Hough at Mudki in 1845; 2. Tej Singh, the Commander in Chief was defeated by the British at Ferozpur in 1845; 3. British under Harvey Smith was defeated by Ranjur Singh Manjithia at Buddewal in 1846; 4. Sikhs were defeated at Aliwal and Soboroan in 1846. The Battle of Soboran was one of the hardest fought battles in Indian History. Lahore was occupied by the British by crossing the Sutlej.
Q4. How the I Anglo Sikh war came to an end?
The Treaty of Lahore, March 1846 - between the Sikhs and the British brought an end to the I Anglo Sikh War. It was followed by another minor treaty at Bhairowal in December 1846, which consolidated the British position in the Punjab, Lahore region.
Q5. What were the contents of the Treaty of Lahore (March 1846) and Treaty of Bhairowal, December 1846?
TREATY OF LAHORE - March 1846 - the contents were:
1. The Sikhs to cede Jullunder Doab to the British and to pay an indemnity of Rs.1.5 crore to the British. The Sikhs could pay only half of this and for the rest, the British got Kashmir which they inturn sold to Gulab Singh.
2. Sir Henry Lawrence was appointed as the Resident of Lahore, with Dalip Singh as the ruler of Punjab and Rani Jindan as the Regent.
3. Reduction of Sikh Army. Sikhs not to employ any foreigners without the British approval.
4. British to get free and undisturbed path in the Sikh territories.
TREATY OF BHAIROWAL - December 1846 - the contents were:
1. Rani Jindan was removed as Regent.
2. Council of Regency with eight Sikh Sardars as Council Members and Sir Henry Lawrence presided over it.
3. British force stationed at Lahore at a cost of Rs.22 Lakh.
4. Governor General of India gets the power to take and garrison any fort in Punjab.
Q6. What are the causes for the II Anglo Sikh War?
1. Sikhs desire to avenge defeat of the I War. 2. Discontentment of the Sikhs. 3. Ill treatment meted out to Rani Jindan and the reduction in her pension. 4. Revolt of Mulraj, Governor of Multan and the murder of two English officers - Vans Agnew and Lt. Anderson - who were sent to take over Multan. 5. Revolt of Sher Singh who was actually sent to suppress Mulraj, revolted against the British, leading to a general outbreak of rebellion by the Sikhs against the British.
Q7. What was the outcome of the II Anglo Sikh War?
1. Battle of Ramnagar (1848) and Battle of Chillianwala (1849) between Sher Singh and Lord Gough, Commander in Chief of British, ended without any result. 2. Multan (now in Pakistan) was captured by Lord Gough and Mulraj was exported. 3. Sikhs were finally defeated in the Battle of Gujarat ( a town near Chenab) in 1849 by Lord Gough and surrender of all Sikh chiefs.
Q8. What was the end result of the Anglo Sikh Wars?
1. Punjab was fully annexed by Lord Dalhousie. 2. Dalip Singh the minor ruler, along with Rani Jindan was pensioned off to England. 3. Three Commissioners viz. Lawrence Brothers (Henry and John) and Charles G. Mansel were appointed to administer Punjab in 1849. 3. The Board was abolished and a single chief commissioner - Sir John Lawrence was appointed in 1853 to administer Punjab. Thus the British had brought the entire India under their control by 1850s. However, the Sind Region (now in Pakistan) was left over for annexation.
Q9. Sind region was part of?
Undivided India - now part of Pakistan.
Q10. Sind was under the rule of?
It was under the rule of Kalora Tribes. In 1783, it came under the Amirs of the Baluchi Tribe (Baluchistan) and functioned as an autonomous state. Sind was divided into three units viz. Hyderabad, Mirpur and Khairpur and ruled under a separate branch of the tribe.
Q11. What were the reasons for the British to annexe Sind?
1. To exploit the commercial possibilities in Sind. 2. To prevent the Russian expansion towards this region. 3. British desire to increase its influence in Persia and Afghanistan through its control of Sind.
Q12. Before annexing the Sind, how was the relationship between the British and the Sind?
1. In 1809, a friendship treaty was signed with the Amirs of Sind, through an ambassador sent by Lord Minto I. 2. In 1832, a treaty was signed through which the British got access to roads and rivers in Sind. The treaty for this was concluded by Lord Bentick. 3. Under force, the Amirs of Sind, signed another treaty in 1839.
Q13. What were the causes for the War by the British with the Amirs of Sind and what was the outcome?
1. Lord Ellenborough unnecessarily provoked the Amirs and people of Sind into war.
2. Appointment of Sir Charles Napier as the British resident of Sind in place of Major James Outram in 1842.
3. Sir Napier destroyed the fort at Imamgarh in 1843. Based on these factors the Amirs of Baluchistan/Sind attacked the British Residency in 1843 and declared a war against the British and the outcome:
1. The British headed by Sir Charles Napier defeated the Baluchis at Miani and the Amirs surrendered. Sher Muhammad, Amir of Mirpur, who was leading the Baluchis was expelled.
2. Sind was annexed by 1843 and Sir Charles Napier was appointed as the first Governor of the Sind Province.
Q14. After the annexation of Sind, a job complete, what was the action of the Crown England to administer India?
With the annexation of Sind, the entire India (undivided), came under the control of the British East India Company, when the Crown of UK formally initiated the process of direct administration over Indi The Sepoy Mutiny 1857 also strengthened the UK's intentions of direct administration, and enacted the "The India Act of 1858" for direct administration, replacing the Board of directors, Governor General.