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MUGHAL EMPIRE 1526-1540 & 1555-1857

Q1. Who founded the Mughal Empire?
BABUR - His original name was Zahiruddin Babur. He was related to Timur of Turco-Mongol origin from his father's side (actually great grand father) and to Chenghiz Khan of the Mongols from his mother's side. The Mughals are descendants of Mongols and preferred to be called as CHAGHATAYIDS after Chenghiz Khan's second son Chagatay. The empire had two phases of ruling 1526-1540 and 1555 to 1857, intervened by Sur Dynasty rule (1540-1555).
Q2. How the Mughal Empire came to be founded?
Babur founded this empire after defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526, and also remained in power until 1530.
Q3. What was Babur's father's name, how he happened to come to India, how long did he rule and what are his conquests?
Babur was the son of Shaikh Mirza and succeeded as the ruler of Farghana. However, he was defeated by one of his relative Shaibani Khan Uzbek and had to flee. Babur, later took over Kabul from his uncle and launched for expeditions to India between 1519-1523. By the end of 1525, he captured Lahore from Daulat Khan Lodhi and then victory over Ibrahim Lodhi at Panipat in 1526 and laid the foundation for the Mughal rule which went on to rule India for more than three centuries. He ruled from 1526 to 1530. His subsequent success were the win over Rana Sangha of Mewar in the battle of Khanwa near Agra in 1527 and Muhammad Lodhi in the battle of Ghagara in Bihar in 1529, thus consolidated the Mugal empire by 1530.
Q4. When did Babur die and where was he laid to rest?
Babur died in 1530 and he was first laid to rest at Agra. After nine years of his death, as per his wishes, he was buried again at Kabul, Afghanistan during the rule of Sher Shah suri.
Q5. What is the name of the garden in which Babur was buried?
BAGH E BABUR at Kabul.
Q6. What is the name of memoir on Babur and in what language it is written?
BABUR NAMA in Chagtai language.
Q7. What is inscribed on the tomb of Babur?
" If there is a paradise on earth, it is this, it is this, it is this".
Q8. List the battles fought and won by Babur?
1. I Battle of Panipat Vs Ibrahim Lodhi - 1526; 2. Battle of Khanwa Vs Rana Sangha at Mewar, 1527; 3. Battle of Ghagra Vs Lodhi combined forces, 1529.
Q9. What was Babur's personal life side?
He was married to 10 women and had four sons and two daughters. The eldest of them was Humayun and succeeded the throne. .
Q10. Who succeeded Babur in the Moghul empire and what were his accomplishments?
HUMAYUN - 1530 -1540 & 1555 - 1556 - Though he made certain initial success in capturing Mandu of Malwa, Champaner, and Ahmedabad and placed them under his viceroys, in Gujarat, which was under Askari the Viceroy, passed out of the Mughal hands due to the viceroy's inefficiency. Humayun's next effort to subdue Sher Khan of Bengal turned out to be a failure in which he and his forces were completely lost out in the battle at Chausa in 1539. Humayun fled to Agra and met his viceroys Kamran of Lahore, Askari of Gujarat and his brother Hindal, but failed to get their support to fight Sher Khan.
Then he took on Sher Khan with his limited resources in the battle of Bilgram (also called Kanauj) in 1540 and was completely routed. Humayun returned to Delhi, failed to get enough support and thus fled to Sind, to reorganize and regain the empire. But, this took another fifteen years. With the help of the forces provided by the Iranian ruler Shah Tahmasp, he reorganized his military resources and set off towards India, enroute he captured Qandahar and Kabul from his viceroys Askari and Kamran respectively.