AMENDMENTS SO FAR:
1. 1951 - On Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression and the right to practice any profession or to carry on any trade or business as contained in Article 19 of the Constitution.
2. 1952 - Article 81 - Readjusting the scale of representation in the House of the People (Lok Sabha) based on the 1951 Census.
3. 1954 - Entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the 7th Schedule - substitution of the entry by including food stuffs, cattle fodder, raw cotton and jute as additional items to enable government control over its production and distribution.
4. 1955 - When the state compulsorily acquires private property for a public purpose, the scale of compensation prescribed by the authorizing legislation could not be called in to question in a court. Another clause excludes the temporary taking over of a property by the State, either in public interest or to secure its better management, from the compensation clause. The amendment also operates as a saving clause for State Monopolies. Seven new entries were also added to the 9th Schedule.
5. 1955 - President empowered to fix a time frame for State Legislatures to express their views on proposed Central laws affecting the area and boundaries.
6. 1956 - New Entry to the Union List in the 7th Schedule relating to taxes on the Sale and purchase of goods in the course of Inter State Transactions.
7. 1956 - Necessitated by the Reorganisation of the States. Maximum strength of Lok Sabha was fixed at 525.
8. 1960 - Article 334 - Extending the period of reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and for Anglo Indian Community by nomination In Parliament and in the State Legislature for a further period of 10 years.
9. 1960 - An amendment to the I Schedule of the Constitution in order to give effect to the transfer fo certain territories of Pakistan in pursuance of the agreements entered into between the two governments in September 1958. This amendment became necessary in view of the Judgement of the Supreme Court in "In Re Berubari Union" by which it was held that any agreement to cede a territory to another country could not be implemented by a law under Article 3 but would only be implemented by an amendment to the Constitution.
10. 1961 - Dadra Nagar Haveli incorporated into India.
11. 1961 - Obviated the necessity of a joint meeting of the two Houses of Parliament by forming them into an electoral college for the election of Vice President. It also amended Article 66 and 71 so as to make it clear that the election of the President or the Vice President shall not be challenged on the ground of any Vacancy, for whatever reason, in the appropriate electoral college.
12 1962 - Goa, Daman and Diu declared as Union Territories and included in The I Schedule of the Constitution.
13. 1962 - Creation of Nagaland as 16th State - Article 371 A was added by this.
14. 1962 - Conferred necessary legislative powers on Parliament to enact laws for The creation of Legislature and Council of Ministers in Union Territories. Pondicherry,Karaikkal, Mahe and Yanam were specified in the Constitution as the Union Territory of Pondicherry.
15. 1963 - Empowered President of India, in consultation with the Chief Justice of India to make final decisions on dispute about a High Court Judge's age. It also shortened the procedure for disciplinary action against State employees.
16. 1963 - Incorporated certain restrictions on the fundamental rights "in the Interest of the sovereignty and integrity of India:.
17. 1964 - It protected many land reform Acts passed by many state governments. Enlarged the definition of the term "estate" to include Ryotwari lands. The enforcement of certain Directive Principles of State Policy was ensured.
18. 1966 - Punjab and Haryana states created by linguistic basis. The amendment further provided that the word "state" in clause (a) to (e) of Article 3 includes a Union Territory and clarified that Parliament had the power to form a new State or Union Territory by combining any part of a State or Union Territory with any part of any other State or Territory.
19. 1966 - An amendment clarifying certain duties of the Election Commission. Article 324 was amended to effect a consequential change as a result of the decision to abolish Election Tribunals and to hear election petitions by High Courts.
20. 1966 - Validated the appointment of certain District Judges, irregularly appointed. A new Article 233 A was added and the appointments made by Governor was validated.
21. 1967 - Sindhi language included in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.
22. 1969 - Meghalaya carved out of Assam and new state created.
23. 1969 - Reservation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, and Anglo Indian Community representation extended for another 10 years.
24. 1971 - the amendment provided for - (i) "notwithstanding anything contained in The Constitution, the Parliament may, in the exercise of its constituent power, amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any part of the Constitution"
(ii) that the President must give his assent to a Constitution Amendment Bill if It has been passed by both the Houses' and
(iii) the Article 13 (which provides that the State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges fundamental rights) shall have no application to laws passed under 24th Amendment.
25. 1971 - The amendment aimed at ensuring that the Fundamental Rights, particularly property rights, do not stand in the implementation of Directive Principles of State Policy as embodied in the Constitution of India. The amendment bars the jurisdiction of Courts over the acquisition of property or on the ground that any such law violates Article 19(1) (f) of Fundamental Rights. The rights of minority educational institutions guaranteed under Article 33 however, remain protected. The amendment also inserts in the Constitution a new clause 3/C, to provide that any legislation passed in pursuance of the Directive Principles Article 39B and C (which concern the ownership and control of material Resources and concentration of wealth and means of production) shall not be challenged in a Court on the grounds that it takes away or abridges any of the rights contained in Articles 14, 19 or 31.
26. 1971 - This amendment has three clauses: (i) Deletes the Articles 291 and 362 of our Constitution which thereto gave protection to the rights of ex-rulers to privy purses and other privileges. (ii) Inserted Article 363 (A) which deprives the princes and their successors of Presidential recognitions. The rights, obligation and other liabilities of the Government towards them are extinguished. (iii) Amending the Article 366, redefines the term "ruler" as a person who was recognized by the President as the ruler of the Indian State before the commencement of the Constitution.
27. 1971 - New States of Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya and two new Union Territories of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh established.
28. 1972 - Article 314 deleted - Article 312 A inserted. Parliament empowered to vary or revoke by law the conditions of services of Officers belonging to the Indian Civil Services.
29. 1972 - The amendment protects the land reforms Acts passed by the State of Kerala.
30. 1972 - Implements the Law Commission's recommendations according to which there should be no valuation test prescribed for declaring a case fit for appeal to the Supreme Court. The Bill seeks to amend Article 133 of the Constitution which laid down that if the value of suit exceeded twenty thousand rupees, there was an almost unrestricted right of appeal to the Supreme Court on any judgement, decree or final order in Civil Proceedings of a High Court.
31. 1973 - Lok Sabha seats upper limit increased to 545 from the earlier 525.
32. 1973 - Implementation of the 6 point programme for Andhra Pradesh.
33. 1974 - Invalidated the acceptance of resignations by members of the State Legislatures and Parliament, which were made under duress or coercion, or any other kind of involuntary resignations.
34. 1974: Providing constitutional protection for the land reforms acts passed by various states.
35. 1974 - Provided for Associate State status to Sikkim.
36. 1975 - Sikkim made as the 22nd State of India.
37. 1975 - Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh provided with a Legislative Assembly and Council of Ministers.
38. 1975 - Sikkim allotted with one seat in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
39. 1975 - Disputes relating to the election of President, Vice President, Prime Minister and Speaker are to be determined by such authority as may be determined by Parliamentary Law.
40. 1976 - It was declared that "all land, minerals and other things of value underlying the ocean within the territorial waters or the continental shelf or the exclusive economic zone of India shall vest in the Union and shall be held for the purpose of the Union.
41. 1976 - Retirement age of State Public Service Commission members raised from 60 to 62. Retained the age of retirement of Union Public Service Members to 65.
42. 1976 - This amendment inserted a new Chapter on the Fundamental Duties of citizens and made special provisions for dealing with anti-national activities. The Judiciary provisions were amended by providing minimum number of Judges to decide the constitutional validity of law and for a special majority of not less than two third majority for declaring any law to be Constitutionally invalid.
In order to dispose of the mounting legal cases in the High Court, this amendment provides for a separate administrative and other tribunals to deal such matters and preserve the jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to such matters under Article 136. This amendment (42nd) was one of politically important one and a historic one in the history of India in that it was the lengthiest amendment and also attracted huge criticism for some of its contents. Salient features of this amendment are:
a) The Preamble has been altered from "Sovereign Democratic, Republic" to "Sovereign Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic' and "Unity of the Nation" into "Unity and Integrity of the Nation".
b) The Directive Principles of the Constitution given precedence over Fundamental Rights, wherever they came into effect.
c) Number of Seats in the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies which are based on population shall remain frozen as in the 1971 census till 2001 AD.
d) The duration of the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies is increased from 5 to 6 years.
e) Proclamation of Emergency may be made applicable to any part of the country. Similarly emergency can be lifted from any part of the country while it remains in force in other parts.
f) The duration of a Presidential proclamation taking over the government of a state shall be one year instead of six months.
g) No court can question the competence of the Parliament to amend the constitution.
h) The Supreme Court alone can adjudicate on the validity of any Central Law and the High Courts can adjudicate on the validity of the State Laws. If the validity of any State Law is dependent on the validity of any Central Law or vice versa., then the Supreme Court can adjudicate on them.In any case, any decision on constitutional invalidity has to be made by a two thirds majority of sitting judges where the number is not less than five. If the number of judges is less than five the judgement has to be unanimous. It is also provided that the High Courts have no power to make an interim order, where it will impede or Obstruct any enquiry or action by the Government.
i)The President's liability to act in accordance with the advice of the Council of Ministers has been made practically mandatory.
j) For all these reasons, this amendment is generally known as "mini Constitution of India".
43. 1977 - Restoration of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts,earlier curtailed by the enactment of the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act,1976 and accordingly Articles 32A, 131A, 144A, 226A, and 228 A included in the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment, were deleted by this Act. It also deleted Article 31D which conferred special powers on Parliament to enact certain laws in respect of anti-national activities.
44. 1978 - This amendment brought a lot of changes in many Articles. The preventive detention for a period of more than two months can be ordered only on the recommendations of an Advisory Board. The right to property was omitted as a fundamental right and made as a legal right. However, the minorities will have rights to establish or run their educational institutions as before.
45. 1980 - It aims to extend the reservation for scheduled castes and tribes as well as for the Anglo Indians for ten more years from January 1980 to 31st December 1989.
46. 1982 - It seeks an entry in the Union List in the Seventh Schedule to enable Parliament to levy tax on inter-state consignment of goods.
47. 1984 - This amendment provides for the inclusion of certain land reforms Acts in the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution with a view of obviating the scope of litigation hampering the implementation process of those acts.
48. 1984 - This was an Amendment to Clause 5 of Article 356 of the Constitution for the continuation of President's Rule in Punjab for one more year.
49. The Government of Tripura recommended that the provisions of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution may be made applicable to the tribal areas of that state. The amendment involved in the Act is intended to give a Constitutional security to the autonomous District Councils functioning in Tripura.
50. It brings, apart from the armed forces, other forces connected with the Administration of public property, persons in the intelligence departments and telecommunication department connected with this duty into the ambit of Article 33 of the Constitution with a view to maintain discipline among these people and ensure proper discharge of their duties.
51. 1984 - Reservation of Seats for STs in Meghalaya, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram in Parliament and that for local tribal people for Nagaland and Meghalaya Legislative Assemblies.
52. 1985 - The Amendment effected by a Bill popularly called Anti Defection Bill, was to curb defection by disqualification. The following are the salient Features of this Amendment Act: A Member of Parliament or Legislature belonging to any political party shall be disqualified to be a member of that House -
a)if he has voluntarily given up his membership of such political party or
b)if he votes or abstains from voting in such House contrary to any direction issued by the political party to which he belongs or by any person or authority authorized by it in this behalf without obtaining in either case, a prior permission of such political party,person or authority, and if such voting or abstension has not been condoned by such political party, person or authority within 15 days from the date of such voting or absenting.
53. 1986 - Grant of full statehood for Mizoram, under Article 371-G.
54. 1986 - Amended Part D of the 2nd Schedule giving effect to the increase of Salaries of the Chief Justice and Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts. And enabling provision for changes in the salaries of judges in future by Parliament by law, was made in Article 125 and 221.
55. 1986 - Insertion of Article 371 H for the grant of full statehood for Arunachal Pradesh with not less than 30 memberin the legislative Assembly.
56. 1987 - Goa accorded statehood, retaining Union Territory status for Daman and Diu.
57. 1987 - 51st Amendment of 1984 was found to be inadequate. Therefore this Amendment was introduced for special arrangement in the reservation for Scheduled Tribes in the State Assemblies of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya, until readjustment of seats on the basis of the first Census after 2000 AD.
58. 1987 - Empowered President of India to publish under his authority the translation of the Constitution in Hindi signed by the Members of the Constitution Assembly with such modification as may be necessary to bring it in conformity with the language, style and terminology adopted in the authoritative texts of Central Acts in Hindi language.
59. 1988 - Gives power to declare emergency for a period upto 3 years in Punjab due to internal disturbance, but extended only for two years.
60. 1988 - Clause (2) of Article 276 of the Constitution was amended so as to increase the ceiling of taxes on professions, trades, callings and employment from two hundred and fifty rupees per annum to two thousand five hundred rupees per annum. The upward revision of this tax will help the State Government in raising additional resources. The provision to Clause (2) has been omitted.
61. 1989 - Voting age lowered to 18 from 21.
62. 1989 - Privileges to SCs and STs extended for another ten years - till 1999.
63. 1989 - 59th Amendment repealed, which gave special powers to the government to impose emergency in Punjab.
64. 1989 - President's rule in Punjab extended for another 6 months to make it 3 years in all.
65. 1990 -National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Tribes, with powers of a Civil Court , in the exercise of its duties.
66. 1990 - All land reforms Act enacted by various State Assemblies included in the Ninth Schedule to provide constitutional security.
69. 1991 - Delhi became a City State with a Legislative Assembly and Council of Ministers getting a special status among the Union Territories.
70. 1992 - Members of the Pondicherry and Delhi Assemblies included in the electoral College.
71. 1992 - Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali languages included in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.
72. 1992 - Reservation of STs in the Assembly of Tripura.
73. 1993 - To add a new part for ensuring direct election to all seats in Panchayats, for the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their population and for the reservation of not less than 1/3 of the seats for women.
74. 1993 - To ensure effective functioning of the Urban Local Bodies, a new part IX A relating to the Municipalities has been incorporated in the Constitution to provide for among other things: Nagar Panchayats for areas in transition from a rural area to Urban area, Municipal Councils for smaller Urban areas and Municipal Corporations for larger Urban areas.
75. 1993 - Provides for the establishment of State level tribunals to settle landlord Vs tenant cases and also provides for the reduction of tiers of all courts except Supreme Court relating to rent litigation.
76. 1994 - This amendment places the Tamil Nadu Bill of Reservation within the purview of the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution. The government of Tamil Nadu reserves 18% to Scheduled Castes, 1% to Scheduled Tribes and 50% to Other Backward Castes (total 69%) in educational institutions and public employments.
77. 1995 - Makes provision for reservation in matters of promotion in any class or classes of posts in services in State in favour of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes which in the opinion of the state are not adequately Represented in the service in a State.
78. 1995 - Insertion of certain land reforms laws of the states in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution.
79. 1999 - Extending the reservation for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies till January 25, 2010.
80. 2000 - Revenue sharing between the Centre and the States whereby States' overall share was increased to 29% as per the Tenth Finance Commission's recommendations.
81. 2000 - Carrying forward backlog vacancies of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
82. 2000 - Relates to relaxation in qualifying marks and reservation of posts in Super speciality courses in Medical and Engineering disciplines etc., for SCs and STs etc., (Amendments 81 and 82 were made in supersession of Supreme Court's Judgement)
83. 2000 - Relates to the reservation of seats under Panchayati Raj in Arunachal Pradesh.
84. 2000 - Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh and Uttaranchal states established.
89. 2000 - Provides for the transfer of 29% share of net tax proceeds to States for a five year period and seeks to bring several Central traxes and duties like Corporation Tax and Customs Duty at par with personal income tax for the purpose of sharing with the States.
93. 2001 - It seeks to provide free and compulsory education for the children Aged 6 to 14 years across the country.
94. 2003 - Setting up of separate national commission for STs.
95. 2003 - Empowered the Centre to collect Service Tax.
96. 2003 - Seeks to provide for readjustments of electoral constituencies, including those reserved for SCs and STs on the basis of the population Census for the year 2001 without affecting the number of seats allocated to States in the Legislative bodies.
97. 2003 - Seeks to strengthen the Anti Defection Law and limit the size of of the Council of Ministers to 10% of the respective strengths of Parliament and the State Legislatures.
98. 2003 - Seeks to constitute a National Judicial Commission by including Chapter IV A in Part V of the Constitution which will be in charge of appointing judges to the higher judiciary and for transferring High Court Judges. The bill also seeks to empower the National Judicial Commission to draw up a code of ethics for judges, inquire into cases of misconduct or deviant actions of a judge other than those that are punishable with his or her removal, and advise the Chief Justice of India or Chief Justice of High Court appropriately after such inquiry.
99. 2003 - Seeks to protect the rights of the non-tribals in the newly elected Bodo Territorial Council by keeping intact the existing representation of the Scheduled Tribes and non- Scheduled Tribes in the Assam Legislative Assembly from the Bodoland Territorial Council Areas district.
100. 2004 - Languages, Bodo and Santhali (Jharkhand), Dogri (Jammu & Kashmir) and Maithili (Bihar) included in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution, making the total number of approved languages to 22.
104. 2005 - An amendment proclaiming reservation for the socially and educationally Backward classes, besides the SCs and STs, in private unaided educational institutions.
107. 2007 - Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council wants the Darjeeling hill areas to be Given tribal areas status (in sixth schedule).
113. Sept. 2011 - Odisha's official language has been named as Odia instead of Oriya.